The rise of modern democracy in old and New England
From the translator's introduction:
If it is true that " good wine needs no bush," a translation of Dr Borgeaud's constitutional studies should not need preliminary apologies. The extent of his research, the accuracy of his knowledge, and the sobriety of his judgment, those who read his pages can hardly fail to observe.
These are the qualities which justify the attempt of Mrs Birkbeck Hill to present in an English dress this sketch of the development of democratic ideas in England and America. At the same time, however, it may be for the convenience of her readers to show the relation of these two essays to the rest of Dr Borgeaud's works, and to give a brief summary of his conclusions.
After obtaining his degree of Doctor in Philosophy at Jena, in 1883, with a thesis on the religious philosophy of Rousseau, Dr Borgeaud devoted himself to the history of democratic ideals, and democratic government.
In 1887, he gained the additional title of Doctor in Law, at Geneva, by his Histoire du Plebiscite Dans V Antiquity} But this investigation of the working of the popular vote in Greece and Rome did not throw much light on the origins of modern democracy. Our modern conception of E. Thorin, Paris, 1887. a democracy differs very widely from that of the ancients. Ancient democracies had no idea of universal suffrage, and instead of the rights of a man recognised only the privileges of the citizen.
For them, the state was a city, and its political centre was the spot where the sovereign assembly of citizens met to vote. Those who were not there were not represented, and the further the city-state extended its borders, the fewer those citizens who could actually exercise their right of voting. Hence the results of the author's enquiry were rather negative than positive.
They may be summed up by the statement, that the most permanent effect of ancient democracy was a new conception of Law. Primitive Law possessed a religious character. It was a revelation — and expression of the will of Heaven made known to men, and as perfect and unchangeable as Heaven itself. But the operation of the system of popular suffrage — so to speak — secularised Law.
It became the expression of the will of the people, at once the result of the development of political society, and the instrument by which that result was effected. In the East, Law retained its original character and remained what it was in the beginning, something divine and unchangeable. In the West, it altered its original character and became human and progressive. The formula of Gains sums up the result of this process of evolution. " Lex est quod populus jubet atque constituit."
Puritanism and the English Revolution. The early Puritans — Thomas Cartwright — The Admonitions to Parliament — Political Life stirred by Puritanism — Spread of Puritan Doctrines — James I.- — ^Conference at Hampton Court — Charles I. — The Presbyterians and the Covenant — The Independents — Origin of their Doctrines — The Writings of Robert Brown — Brownist Congregationalism —The Dissenters and the Army of Cromwell — The Coup d etat of the Independents — The Petition of the Army — Proposals for a Constitution to be submitted to the Vote of the People. 1 1
History of the Agreement of the People. The Army and the Democrats of Southwark — John Lilburne — The Remonstrance of 1646 — Disbanding of the Troops — The Agitators — The Rendezvous of Newmarket and of Triple Heath — Declaration to Parliament — The Policy of Cromwell — The Grandees and the Democrats — "The Case of the Army Truly Stated " — Sketch of the Agreement — Debates in the Council of Officers — Resistance of Cromwell — The Rendezvous at Ware — Military Execution — Finnness of the Democrats — Their Victory over Cromwell — The Agreement presented to Parliament by the General-in-Chief 45
the book details :
Download The rise of modern democracy in old and New England -2.9 MB