From the Greeks to Darwin - (1908) PDF- by Henry Fairfield Osborn

From the Greeks to Darwin; an outline of the development of the evolution idea

From the Greeks to Darwin


This volume has grown out of lectures first delivered in Princeton, in 1890, upon the period between Buffon and Darwin, and completed in a fuller course delivered in Columbia in 1893, which covered also the period before Buffon.

 When I began the study, my object was to bring forward the many strong and true features of pre-Darwinian Evolution, which are so generally passed over or misunderstood. 

When all the materials were brought together from the earliest times, the evidence of continuity in the development of the idea became more clear, and tracing these lines of development has gradually become the central motive of these lectures. 

More thorough research, which may, perhaps, be stimulated by these out- lines will, I believe, strengthen this evidence. I am greatly indebted to my friends Professor George Macloskie and Professor Alexander T. Ormond for assistance and critical advice in connection with the revision of the proofs.

Contents:

I. THE ANTICIPATION AND INTERPRETATION OF NATURE i
Preliminary Survey. The environment of the Evolution idea. Periods of its development. Nature of the idea. The scientific method of thought. The Advance of Philosophy. The advance of Zoology and
Botany. Embryology.
II. AMONG THE GREEKS 29
Conditions of Greek thought. The Greek Periods. lonians and Eleatics: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Xenophanes. The Physicists: Heraclitus, Empedocles, Democritus, Anaxagoras. Aristotle and his followers. Pliny, Epicurus, Lucretius. The legacy of the Greeks to later Evolution.

III. THE THEOLOGIANS AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHERS 69

The transition from Greek Philosophy to Christian Theology. The Fathers and Schoolmen: Gregory, Augustine, Erigena, Aquinas. Arabic Science and Philosophy: Avicenna, Avempace, Abubakar. Bruno and Suarez. The awakening of Science. Characteristics of Evolution in Philosophy. The Natural Philosophers : Bacon, Des- cartes, Leibnitz, Kant, Lessing, Herder, Schelling.

IV. THE EVOLUTIONISTS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 106
The two series of Evolutionists. The speculative Evolutionists : Duret, Kircher, Maupertuis, Diderot, Bonnet, De Maillet, Robinet, Oken. The Naturalists : Linnaeus, Buffon, E. Darwin.

V. FROM LAMARCK TO ST. HILAIRE 152
Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. Lamarck. Goethe. Treviranus. Cuvier. Geoffrey St. Hilaire. Discussion between Cuvier and St. Hilaire. Bory de St. Vincent. Isidore St. Hilaire. Decline of the Evolution idea.
VI. DARWIN 209
The first half-century. Miscellaneous writers. The Embryologists: Meckel, Baer, Serres. The followers of Buffon : Herbert, Buch, Haldeman, Spencer. The Progressions: Chambers, Owen. The Selections: Wells, Matthew, St. Hilaire, Naudin, Wallace. Darwin. Darwin and Wallace in 1858. Retrospect.

book details :
  • Author: Henry Fairfield Osborn
  • Publication date: 1908
  • Company: New York: Macmillan

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