Alexander the Great Free PDF book (1914) by Ada Russell

Alexander the Great Free PDF book (1914) by Ada Russell

Alexander the Great And Diogenes
Alexander the Great And Diogenes from the book


It is difficult to realize that the earth on which Alexander the Great was born was the same in its main outlines as the earth on which we stand today, and at the same time to realize how very different from our present knowledge were men's ideas then of its area. Even modern writers picture Alexander as primitive in his notions, and it will be interesting to remember when we find him anxious to press ever farther and farther east and south, that the philosophers of his time, especially his great teacher Aristotle, had just announced new arguments to prove that the earth was spherical in form. The old Homeric ideas that the earth was a flat disk, that the bronze firmament, set with stars, was upheld on great pillars by Atlas, and that the sun (as Herodotus imagined) could be blown out of its course by a strong wind, had passed away forever.

Among the earliest peoples to travel about the sea were the Phoenicians, a Semitic race akin to the Jews, and the greatest trading and maritime race of antiquity. They ventured far in search of the rich merchandise which they brought back to their cities of Tyre and Sidon on the coast of Syria, to Carthage on the north coast of Africa, and to their other settlements at all quarters of the Mediterranean. They are believed to have learned the alphabet and other arts from their customers the Egyptians and to have been the teachers of the Greeks in these matters. The Phoenicians told nobody of the geographical knowledge which they acquired in their wanderings, as they were anxious to keep a trading 9 Alexander the Great monopoly.

They rounded the coast of Spain by the 'Pillars of Hercules' at a very early date, sailed through the Bay of Biscay, established trade with Britain, and perhaps even fetched amber from the shores of the Baltic. When the Greeks, however, first began to launch their merchantmen the Phoenicians assured them that the Pillars of Hercules stood at the western end of the earth, and probably many of the legends which make early Greek geography so picturesque were invented by those wily adventurers in order to discourage the Greeks from following in their steps.

Content of the books

I, The Old World 9

II. Philip II of Macedonia 25

III. Alexander as Prince 37

IV. Alexander in Thrace, Illyria, and Greece ... 49
V. The Conquest of Asia Minor 60

VI. Conquest of Syria and Phcbnicia 76

VII. Alexander in Egypt 88

VIII. The Conquest of Persia 96

IX. Alexander in Central Asia Ill

X. The Conquest of the Punjab 125

XI. The Return to Susa 138

XII. The Last Two Years 152

XIII. Alexander's Character and Place in History. 172

XIV. The Alexandrian Empire 179

Author: Ada Russell

 Publication Date: 1914

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