General Chemistry - PDF book by N. L. Glinka

General Chemistry

General Chemistry





Professor N. Glinka's textbook General Chemistry has been very popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. During the author's life, it saw 12 editions in Russian and was repeatedly published in the languages of the peoples of the USSR. Many generations of students have studied chemistry from this text, secondary school graduates have used it in preparing for their entrance examinations to higher educational establishments, and specialists of non-chemical professions have often found answers to their questions in it. 

The popularity of the textbook can be attributed to the intelligent selection of the material and the clear logic of the order of presentation. 

The fourteenth Russian edition was the basis for the revised fourth English edition. The time that has elapsed since the author's death, however, has required the introduction of appreciable amendments into the book. This necessity was due first of all to the extensive penetration of chemistry into many branches of the economy and its growing role in the training of specialists in a variety of professions. In addition, the volume of the factual material of chemistry has grown tremendously, which requires a new approach to its selection for a textbook. 

Finally, this period is characterized by the continuation of the process of the transformation of chemistry from empirical science to a branch of science based on strictly scientific foundations, above all on the modern concepts of the structure of matter and on the theory of thermodynamics. 


The required revision of the textbook was carried out in its sixteenth Russian edition (1973). The sections devoted to the structure of a substance, the fundamentals of chemical thermodynamics, solutions, and complex compounds were substantially expanded; greater attention was given to matters associated with oxidation-reduction processes and with the properties of metals and alloys; the material devoted to the chemistry of individual elements has been appreciably revised. 6 Preface to the Third English Edition The textbook was revised by a group of authors including P. N. So- kolov, Cand. Sc. (Chem.), Prof. A. V. Markovich, D.Sc. (Chem.), Prof. A. I. Stetsenko, D.Sc. (Chem.), Associate Professors Z. Ya. Kevin, Cand. Sc. (Chem.), K. V. Kotegov, Cand.Sc. (Chem.), and V. A. Rabinovich, Cand.Sc. (Chem.), who was also responsible for editing the entire book. An additional revision of the book mainly due to the transition to SI units of physical quantities and the associated alterations in terminology was carried out in the 19th Russian edition (1977). 


The present English text has been translated from the 21st Russian edition and has been divided into two volumes so as to facilitate work with the book. We hope that it will be met with interest by our students.

Some Contents of the book
Introduction 11
1. Matter and Its Motion 11
2. Substances and Their Changes. The Subject of Chemistry 12
3. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemistry in the National Economy of the USSR 13
Chapter 1. The Atomic and Molecular Concept 15
4. Law of Conservation of Mass 16
5. The essence of the Atomic and Molecular Concept 18
6. Elementary Substance and Chemical Element 20
7. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Multiple Proportions 22
8. Law of Combining Volumes. Avogadro Law 24
9. Atomic and Molecular Masses. The Mole 25
10. Determining the Molecular Masses of Gaseous Substances 27
11. Partial Pressure of a Gas 30
12. Equivalent. Law of Equivalents 31
13. Determination of Atomic Masses. Valence 33
14. Chemical Symbols 37
15. Most Important Classes of Inorganic Substances 38
16. Chemical Calculations 44
Chapter 2. Mendeleev's Periodic Law 48
17. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48
18. The Periodic Table of Elements 50
19. Significance of the Periodic Table 55
Chapter 3. Structure of the Atom. Development of the Periodic Law 58
20. Radioactivity 58
21. Nuclear Model of the Atom 61
22. Atomic Spectra 63
23. The Quantum Theory of Light 65
24. Structure of an Atom’s Electron Shell According to Bohr 69
25. Initial Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 72
26. Wave Function 74
27. Energy State of an Electron in an Atom 76
28. Principal Quantum Number 79
29. Orbital Quantum Number. Shapes of Electron Clouds 80
30. Magnetic and Spin Quantum Numbers 86
31. Many-Electron Atoms 89
32. The Pauli Exclusion Principle. Electron Configuration
of Atoms and the Periodic Table 91
33. The Dimensions of Atoms and Ions 103
34. Ionization Energy and Affinity to Electron 105
35. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Isotopes 108
36. Radioactive Elements and Their Decay 111
37. Artificial Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions 115
Chapter 4. The Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules 119
38. The Theory of Chemical Structure 120
39. Covalent Bond. The Method of Valence Bonds 124
40. Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bond 129
41. Ways of Forming a Covalent Bond 133
42. The direction of a Covalent Bond 138
43. Hybridization of Atomic Electron Orbitals 141
44. Multiple-Centre Bonds 145
45. The Method of Molecular Orbitals 148
46. Ionic Bond 158
47. Hydrogen Bond 162
Chapter 5. The Structure of Solids and Liquids 165
48. Intermolecular Interaction 165
Ko. The Crystalline State of a Substance 166
50. The Internal Structure of Crystals 168
51. Real Crystals 171
52. The Amorphous State of a Substance 172
53. Liquids 173
Chapter 6. Fundamental Laws of Chemical Reactions 175
54. Energy Conversions in Reactions 175
55. Thermochemistry 176
56. Thermochemical Calculations 178
57. Rate of a Chemical Reaction 180
58. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Reactant Concentrations 182
59. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Nature of
the Reactants 184

60. Catalysis] 187
61. Reaction Rate in Heterogeneous Systems 190
62. Chain Reactions ^
63. Irreversible and Reversible Reactions. Chemical Equilibrium 193
64. Displacement of Chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s
Principle
65. Factors Determining the Direction of Chemical Reactions 200
66. Thermodynamic Quantities. Internal Energy and Enthalpy 205
67. Thermodynamic Quantities. Entropy and Gibbs Energy 208
68. Standard Thermodynamic Quantities. Chemical-Thermodynamic
Calculations 211
Chapter 7. Water. Solutions 210
Water 216
69. Water in Nature 216
70. The Physical Properties of Water 217
71. Phase Diagram of Water 220
72. The Chemical Properties of Water 223
Solutions 224
73. A Characteristic of Solutions. The Dissolving Process 224
74. The concentration of Solutions 225
75. Hydrates and Crystal Hydrates 227
76. Solubility 229
77. Supersaturated Solutions 234
78. Osmosis 235
79. Vapour Pressure of Solutions 238
80. Freezing and Boiling of Solutions 240
Chapter 8. Solutions to Electrolytes 243
81. Features of Solutions of Salts, Acids, and Bases 243
82. The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 245
83. The Dissociation Process 247
84. Degree of Dissociation. Strength of Electrolytes 248
85. Dissociation Constant 249
86. Strong Electrolytes 252
87. Properties of Acids, Bases, and Salts from the Viewpoint of
the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 255
88. Net Ionic Equations 258
89. Solubility Product 261


Author:  N. L. Glinka
Publication Date:1986


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