General Chemistry Free PDF book Vol 1 by N. L. Glinka (1986)

General Chemistry Free PDF book Vol 1 by N. L. Glinka (1986)

General Chemistry Free PDF book

Nikolai Glinka, after graduating from the Moscow University in 1908, conducted research for several years under the guidance of N. D. Zelinsky.

He preferred teaching to research, however, and took his doctorate in that field. He taught chemistry in Podolsk for twelve years and was then transferred to Moscow in 1924 by the People's Commissariat of Education. In 1940, he was appointed Head of the Department of Inorganic and General Chemistry at the All-Union Polytechnical Correspondence Institute, a post he held to the end of his life. He died in 1965 at the age of 82. Veniamin Rabinovich, the editor of the revised edition of General Chemistry graduated from the Leningrad State University in 1940.



He is a Candidate of Sciences (Chemistry) and an associate professor at the A. I. Gertsen Pedagogical Institute, Leningrad. He is the author of over 50 scientific works, mainly on the thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions. His other activities include the publication of reference literature: he is the deputy editor in chief and a co-author of the fundamental seven-volume Chemist's Handbook (in Russian), and the editor and a co-author of a Concise Chemical Reference Book (in Russian).
Contents of the book
Contents of the book

Introduction 11

1. Matter and Its Motion 11

2. Substances and Their Changes. The Subject of Chemistry 12

3. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemistry in the National Economy of the USSR 13

Chapter 1. The Atomic and Molecular Concept 15

4. Law of Conservation of Mass 16

5. The essence of the Atomic and Molecular Concept 18

6. Elementary Substance and Chemical Element 20

7. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Multiple Proportions 22

8. Law of Combining Volumes. Avogadro Law 24

9. Atomic and Molecular Masses. The Mole 25

10. Determining the Molecular Masses of Gaseous Substances 27

11. Partial Pressure of a Gas 30

12. Equivalent. Law of Equivalents 31

13. Determination of Atomic Masses. Valence 33

14. Chemical Symbols 37

15. Most Important Classes of Inorganic Substances 38

16. Chemical Calculations 44

Chapter 2. Mendeleev's Periodic Law 48

17. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48

18. The Periodic Table of Elements 50

19. Significance of the Periodic Table 55

Chapter 3. Structure of the Atom. Development of the Periodic Law 58

20. Radioactivity 58

21. Nuclear Model of the Atom 61

22. Atomic Spectra 63

23. The Quantum Theory of Light 65

24. Structure of an Atom’s Electron Shell According to Bohr 69

25. Initial Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 72

26. Wave Function 74

27. Energy State of an Electron in an Atom 76

28. Principal Quantum Number 79

29. Orbital Quantum Number. Shapes of Electron Clouds 80

30. Magnetic and Spin Quantum Numbers 86

31. Many-Electron Atoms 89

32. The Pauli Exclusion Principle. Electron Configuration

of Atoms and the Periodic Table 91

33. The Dimensions of Atoms and Ions 103

34. Ionization Energy and Affinity to Electron 105

35. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Isotopes 108

36. Radioactive Elements and Their Decay 111

37. Artificial Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions 115

Chapter 4. The Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules 119

38. The Theory of Chemical Structure 120

39. Covalent Bond. The Method of Valence Bonds 124

40. Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bond 129

41. Ways of Forming a Covalent Bond 133

42. The direction of a Covalent Bond 138

43. Hybridization of Atomic Electron Orbitals 141

44. Multiple-Centre Bonds 145

45. The Method of Molecular Orbitals 148

46. Ionic Bond 158

47. Hydrogen Bond 162

Chapter 5. The Structure of Solids and Liquids 165

48. Intermolecular Interaction 165

Ko. The Crystalline State of a Substance 166

50. The Internal Structure of Crystals 168

51. Real Crystals 171

52. The Amorphous State of a Substance 172

53. Liquids 173

Chapter 6. Fundamental Laws of Chemical Reactions 175

54. Energy Conversions in Reactions 175

55. Thermochemistry 176

56. Thermochemical Calculations 178

57. Rate of a Chemical Reaction 180

58. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Reactant Concentrations 182

59. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Nature of

the Reactants 184


60. Catalysis] 187

61. Reaction Rate in Heterogeneous Systems 190

62. Chain Reactions ^

63. Irreversible and Reversible Reactions. Chemical Equilibrium 193

64. Displacement of Chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s
Principle

65. Factors Determining the Direction of Chemical Reactions 200

66. Thermodynamic Quantities. Internal Energy and Enthalpy 205

67. Thermodynamic Quantities. Entropy and Gibbs Energy 208

68. Standard Thermodynamic Quantities. Chemical-Thermodynamic

Calculations 211

Chapter 7. Water. Solutions 210

Water 216

69. Water in Nature 216

70. The Physical Properties of Water 217

71. Phase Diagram of Water 220

72. The Chemical Properties of Water 223

Solutions 224

73. A Characteristic of Solutions. The Dissolving Process 224

74. The concentration of Solutions 225

75. Hydrates and Crystal Hydrates 227

76. Solubility 229

77. Supersaturated Solutions 234

78. Osmosis 235

79. Vapour Pressure of Solutions 238

80. Freezing and Boiling of Solutions 240

Chapter 8. Solutions to Electrolytes 243

81. Features of Solutions of Salts, Acids, and Bases 243

82. The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 245

83. The Dissociation Process 247

84. Degree of Dissociation. Strength of Electrolytes 248

85. Dissociation Constant 249

86. Strong Electrolytes 252

87. Properties of Acids, Bases, and Salts from the Viewpoint of

the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 255

88. Net Ionic Equations 258

89. Solubility Product 261

90. Dissociation of Water. pH 263

91. The shift of Ionic Equilibria 266

92. Hydrolysis of Salts 270

Chapter 9. Oxidation-Reduction Reaction. Fundamentals ot Electrochemistry 277

93. Oxidation of Elements 277

94. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 278

95. Compiling Equations of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 279

96. Most Important Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 283

97. Oxidation-Reduction Duality. Intramolecular Oxidation-Reduction of 284

98. Chemical Sources of Electrical Energy 286

99. Electrode Potentials 292

100. Electromotive Series of Metals 303

101. Electrolysis 306

102. Laws of Electrolysis 311

103. Electrolysis in Industry 312

104. Electrochemical Polarization. Overvoltage 315

Chapter 10. Dispersed Systems. Colloids 318

105. The Dispersed State of a Substance. Dispersed Systems 318

106. State of a Substance at a Phase Interface 323

107. Colloids and Colloidal Dispersions 325

108. Dispersion Analysis. Optical and Molecular-Kinetic Proper¬
ties of Dispersed Systems 330

109. Sorption and Sorption Processes. Molecular Adsorption 333

110. Ion-Exchange Adsorption 337

111. Chromatography 340

112. Electrokinetic Phenomena 343

113. Stability and Coagulation of Dispersed Systems 346

114. Structure Formation in Dispersed Systems. The Physico¬
chemical Mechanics of Solids and Dispersed Structures 351




Author:  N. L. Glinka
Publication Date:1986
Updated 

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