The heterodoxies of the Shiites according to Ibn Hazm -PDF by Israel Friedlaender

The heterodoxies of the Shiites according to Ibn Hazm 

The heterodoxies of the Shiites


Because of thee "with these words Muhammed is reported to have addressed once his nephew and son-in-law Ali " because of thee two parties will come to ruin: thy overzealous admirers and thy passionate haters." 1 In this short sentence, put into the mouth of the Prophet by a retrospective consideration of history, is clearly indicated as the main source of the decomposition of Islam in the past and present. For endless woe has been inflicted upon the professors of Islam by Ali and his descendants, the Alids. 

In the first battle, in which, betraying the principle of " jihad," Muhammedans fought against Muhammedans, it was the name of Ali that served as the war cry, and his name is still the watchword that splits the Muhammedan world into two hostile factions. Streams of blood and, what is perhaps more important, streams of ink, representing the mental energy of the best and noblest in Islam, were shed to defend or to reject the claims of the Alids. But their claims are not yet settled, the minds by no means pacified, and the cry' of revenge "Hasan! Husein!" sounds with undiminished violence through the lands of the Shi'a, arousing hatred and enmity in the hearts of its believers.

The origin of Shiism is still a problem that is a little settled, or perhaps less settled than it was scores of years ago. Formerly the influence of Persian ideas on the rise of the Shi'a was advocated as a matter of course by men like Kremer, Dozy, 'August Miller, and recently (although in contradiction with his sound remarks in the introduction) by Blochet (le Messianisme Dans I'heterodoxie Musulmane, Paris 1903). This assumption is apparently based on two arguments: (1) on the adherence of modern Persia to Shiism, and (2) on the resemblance between the doctrine of incarnation taught by Shiism and a similar conception current in Central Asia (cf. Kremer, Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Mams, pp. 14, 361, 377). But the former argument is refuted by the fact that as late as 1500 A.D. Persia was in great part Sunnite (Noldeke, Sketches from Eastern History, p. 101). As for the latter argument, one does not see why the doctrine of the incarnation should not rather be attributed, as was already suggested by the great Ibn Khaldun and even earlier Muhammedan writers, to the influence of Christianity. Wellhausen

The present treatise was originally published in the Journal of the American Oriental Society. It consists of two parts, the first (covering 80 pages) and the second (covering 183 pages) having appeared respectively in vol. xxviii. and in vol. xxix. of the above-named Journal. Of the first part, pp. 1-28 contain the Introduction, pp. 28-80 the translation of Ibn Hazm's texts

Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (Khalifah, head of state) of Islam.


the book details :
  • Author:Israel Friedlaender
  • Publication date:1909
  • Company: American Oriental Society

  • Download 25.7 MB PDF ebook

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