This book illustrating the law of thinking with illustrations, The author tries to make the logic terms easier and simple for students.
It was at the beginning of a certain Long Vacation when my father sent for me and delivered himself of the follow- ing remarks: ' My son, your scores at cricket, your racquets, your prowess in the hunting-field and in your college steeple-chases, your numberless invitations and popularity, to you doubtless appear all that can be desired; to me, Sir, they, are nothing. they are even positively harmful, seeing that by their fascinating brightness men are blinded to all sense of their true interests and aim — viz., to secure their degree as soon as possible with a view to a start to have.' Upon my replying to my father to the effect that every allowance was to be made for him. — as having left college five-and-twenty years — if, as in the present instance, he manifested lamentable ignorance of the whole state of the University at the present day, and that his milk-and-water reading man would certainly be regarded with loathing and abhorrence by all ' our fellows ' and all the best men at Oxford, and consequently, sinking into obscurity, would be ruined for life, and upon my making many other similar assertions, my father, with much warmth, commanded me to be silent and then asked me if I expected I was to live a life of slothful ease because I was a rich man's son; with several other questions which were not meant to be answered; finally becoming so excited as to referral to his own university career, a subject which he quickly dropped, remembering how often he had told me stories of his undergraduate days before I was sent to college.
The result was that I was ordered to select a tutor for two months in the Long Vacation and pass my moderations in the following term, or forever be condemned to the backless slippery heights of office stools.
The awful thought of ' wasting m.y sweetness ' and withering in such a dry and uncongenial soil nerved me for a desperate effort. Of a restless and excitable disposition, I was for some time after haunted by dreams of men with pens in their ears, and ledgers with columns of figures to add, so lofty that their bases were on the earth while their summits were lost in the clouds. I never could do mathematics — not that 1 was quick at any work — even my mother allowed this, for she wrote to my tutor for matriculation to the effect that ' our dear Douglas had manifested symptoms of future greatness, when a child, and still possessed the remarkable ability, if it could only be drawn out; but alas! there was a want of application, especially in his mathematics.'
I, therefore, determined to take up Logic as a substitute for Mathematics and wrote to inform my tutor that I should only want help in this subject. He selected a charming spot on the north coast of Devon and we met there.
He had one other pupil — a very quiet youth and, as it seemed to me, very clever, my fear of whom was heightened considerably when I learnt that he had intended to try for a class, but, finding his books in a very imperfect state, was content with passing, though determined not to miss that. The awe with which this piece of information filled me I never succeeded in quite shaking off, though I liked him very much afterwards. He always seemed to be a sort of halfway house between Mr Practical and myself.
Contents of the book:
I. What is Science? 1
II. What is Art? 14
III. Logic is a Science and an Art 21
IV. Form and Matter of Thought 29
V. The Eeconchjation, and also how Logic is more of
a Science than an Art 38
VI. Logic the Science of Sciences and Art of Arts. -l.S
VII. The Relation of Logic to Language . . . . 4S
VIII. At.t. Thought is Comparison 53
IX. The Teem 57
X. Connotation and Denotation . . . . .61
XI. Propositions 70
XII. distribution of Terms in a Proposition . . .75
XIII Heads of Predicables. 70
XIV. Definition 88
XV. Division 96
XVI. Inference 103
XVII. Syllogism 113
XVIII. Syllogism 123
XIX. Syllogism 128
XX. Trains of Reasoning — Sorites 134
XXI. Hypothetical Syllogisms 136
XXII. Probable Reasoning 142
XXIII. The Fallacies 146
Appendix A .155
Appendix B 162
Appendix C 163
book details :
Author: Alfred James Swinburne
Publication date: 1887
Company: London, Longmans, Green
Download Picture Logic - PDF ebook - 5 MB
Download Picture Logic - PDF ebook - 5 MB