Text-book of electrochemistry; (1902) PDF book by Svante Arrhenius

Text-book of electrochemistry

Text-book of electrochemistry


Translation of Lärobok i teoretisk elektrokemi
Translated by John McCrae.

The basis of this book is a series of lectures delivered by me at the University of Stockholm in the autumn of 1897. The English translation has been made from the German edition. 

In the German translation, made by Dr H. Euler, many improvements and additions to the original Swedish edition were introduced with reference to the literature up till 1901. Only a few alterations have been made in the present edition, and these refer mainly to typographical errors. By the list of literature references collected by Dr McCrae considerable value has been added to the book. 

Svante  Arrhenius, June, 1902

Some contents of the books:


CHAPTER I. 
 Fundamental Physical and Chemical Conceptions. Polarisation,!. Cause of polarisation, 2. The electrolytic decomposition of water, 2. Electrolysis of salts of the heavy metals, 3. Primary and secondary electrolysis, 3. Ions, 4. Coulomb, 4. Ampere, 4. Ohm, 4. Unit of conductivity, 4. The absolute systems, 4. Ohm's law, Volt, 5. Potential, 5. Fall of potential, 6. Current density, 7. Electrochemical equivalents, 7. Atomic weight, 8. Gram-equivalent, 9. Gram-molecule, 9. Concentration, 10. Temperature, 10. Mechanical work, 11. The effect, 11. Work done by change of volume, 12. Work done by the evolution of a gas under constant pressure, 12. Expansion of gases by heat at constant pressure, 14. Expansion of gases at a constant temperature, 14. 


 CHAPTER II. Older Electrochemical Views. The first electrochemical investigations, 16. Galvani and Volta, 17. Berzelius's investigations, 18. Davy's electrochemical theory, 18. Berzelius's theory, 19. The Grotthuss chain, 21. Ampere's theory, 21. Faraday's law, 22. Hittorf s investigation, 22. Helmholtz's Faraday lecture, 22.


 CHAPTER III
 The Laws of Avogadro and Hoff. Boyle's law, 25. Gay-Lussac's law, 25. Avogadro's law, 25. Law of van der Waals,-26. Isotonic solutions, 27. Semi-permeable membranes, 28. Osmotic pressure, 28. The osmotic pressure of gases, 31. Osmotic experiments with liquids, 32. Nature of osmotic pressure, 33. Physiological viii CONTENTS. measurement of the relative osmotic pressures in different solutions, 35. Tammann's measurements, 37. Further experiments on osmotic pressure, 38. CHAPTER IV. Vapour Pressure of Solutions. Vapour pressure of a solution, 39. The connection between vapour pressure and osmotic pressure, 39. Relative lowering of vapour pressure, 41. Vapour pressure of solutions in ether, 43. Higher concentrations, 44. Aqueous solutions, 45. 

 CHAPTER V.
 Boiling Point and Freezing Point of Solutions. Calculation of the boiling point of a solution, 47. The freezing point of solutions, 49. Experimental determination of the freezing point, 51. Experimental determination of the boiling point, 52. Advantages of the freezing point method, 53. The connection between the depression of vapour pressure and depression of freezing point, 54. The connection between the osmotic pressure of a solution and its freezing point and vapour pressure, 55. Molecular lowering of the freezing point, 56. Molecule complexes, 58. Dissociation of electrolytes, 59. Range of validity of  Hoffs law, 60. Alloys, 61. Solid solutions, 63. Experimental results on the rise of boiling point, 63. Comparison between the various methods for determining the molecular weight, 65. Review of the results obtained, 66.

 CHAPTER VI. 

 General Conditions of Equilibrium. Chemical reactions, 69. Chemical equilibrium, 70. The phase rule of Gribbs, 73. Osmotic work, 75. Henry's law, 77. Distribution law, 80. Kinetic considerations, 82. Depression of solubility, 83. Homogeneous equilibrium, 84. Clapeyron's formula, 90. Change of solubility with temperature, 91. Change of homogeneous equilibrium with temperature, 93. Maxima and minima in equilibria, 96. Influence of pressure, 98. 
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The author :
Svante August Arrhenius was a Swedish scientist. Originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, Arrhenius was one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1903, becoming the first Swedish Nobel laureate
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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry concerned with the relationship between electrical potential, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electrical potential as an outcome of a particular chemical change, or vice versa.


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