General biology; (1913) PDF book by James George Needham

General biology:offers a series of practical studies of biological phenomena for the guidance of the general student. It is not a formal text,

General biology; a book of outlines and practical studies for the general student

General biology


Excerpt from the introduction:


This book offers a series of practical studies of biological phenomena for the guidance of the general student. It is not a formal text, and not at all a treatise, but only a guide intended to assist the student in acquiring for himself some real knowledge of living nature. It differs chiefly from other books intended for the use of college classes in the wider range of studies it offers, some important phases of biology having hitherto been dismissed with mere didactic instruction. 


Morphology has dominated — often monopolized — college work in biology in the past; doubtless, because it was first reduced to pedagogic form, and made available for laboratory instruction. A more equable treatment is here attempted, in the hope of leading the student to a practical acquaintance with elementary phenomena in the whole broad field. The generation of biologists which began its studies with Huxley and Martin's pioneer laboratory manual has witnessed a marvelous expansion of biological knowledge. Departments have sprung up, and teachers, as well as practitioners, have specialized, and courses have multiplied amazingly. 
\
Yet I am persuaded that the reasons given by Huxley and Martin for offering a general course are as valid today as they were in 1868. Indeed I am inclined to think that some added reasons have grown out of the increasing applications of biological knowledge to the practical affairs of life. The conditions of our living make ever-increasing demands for knowledge of life phenomena, and some comprehension of biological principles is fast becoming a part of the common intelligence.  We are organisms; and out of that fact grow the fundamental relations that general biology bears to a whole wide range of special sciences, the threshold of which may, I hope, be reached by those who follow the course here outlined. After Chapter I, which is introductory, the studies of chapter II should lead up to physiology* algology, mycology, bacteriology, protozoology, etc., those of chapter III, to morphology, comparative anatomy, embryology, palaeontology and special botany and zoology; those of chapter IV, to c3rtology and eugenics; those of chapter V, to ecology, and limnology; those of chapter VI, to pathology, experimental biology, etc.; those of chapter VII, to neurology, psychology, sociology and ethnology. And in the broader sense of these terms, many more special sciences are included. In the preparation of this course I have had in mind the needs of the great majority of college students, who may hardly spend more "than a year in this subject. 

Certainly, no other subject touches their lives at so many important points. What will best serve their needs? has been the question constantly before me; not. What has been taught hitherto? Ecological and evolutionary phenomena are just as available for practical studies as are morphological types, and I have introduced them freely, although not without pangs of regret for the good things of former courses that had to be omitted to make room. I have reduced to a minimum the directions for the laboratory study of morphological types, for excellent outlines are everywhere available for work of this sort; and I have given a larger place to outlines for fieldwork and experimental studies. I have arranged the subject matter to suit the seasons of the college year. I have included more than a year's work in order that selections might be made. For pedagogic reasons, I have introduced the first phenomena of some familiarity, postponing more technical matters. 


Mere technique has no part in this course. Pacts are neither better nor worse for educational purposes because of technical difficulties that may or may not stand in the way of their acquisition; and therefore, other things being equal I have given preference to such observations as are most likely to be continued after the work of the college course is ended. The purpose of the introduction given for each subject is to orient the student for the work assigned — not to replace the lecture or the recitation. I have tried to tell what he should know in order to outline what he should do, and I have tried so to shape the conclusion of his work as to invite a little thinking. During the past seven years I have been seeking methods that would facilitate the handling of bodies of facts sufficiently large for satisfactory illustration of general biological principles and phenomena. Many new exercises have been tried by my classes in the field and laboratory; the ones that have proved most serviceable are included in the following pages. Herein are detailed the methods I have found most available. 


The materials used are of less consequence. I have used whatever lay nearest at hand, only seeking to draw my materials from a wide range of groups, in order to extend the acquaintance of the student with the face of nature. In so far as it has been necessary to touch upon theoretical questions, it has been my purpose, not to advance any biological theories but to bring the student into practical contact with the facts underlying all the theories. The field of biology is so vast that no one can claim expert knowledge in any considerable portion of it. It is very probable, therefore, that in covering so much ground in even so elementary a manner, I have made some mistakes. I can only hope that they may not be of such nature as to seriously mislead or confuse the student and that I may have the further aid of generous colleagues toward their early elimination. 


Many of my colleagues and former pupils have helped me with valuable suggestions and I would be glad if there were space to thank them all; and I cannot refrain from making mention of the special help that has been given me by Professors J. H. Comstock, W. A. Riley, G. F. Atkinson, B. M. Duggar, B. F. Kingsbury, I. M. Bentley, A. Hunter, R. H. McKee and Drs. A. H. Wright and W. A. Hilton on the part of the proofs that they have seen. Others of my colleagues have generously loaned me valuable portraits, concurring in my belief, that it would be worthwhile to introduce the faces of at least a few of the great pioneers of biology unobtrusively into the students' intellectual environment.

Who is James George Needham   

James George Needham was an American entomologist. After studying with John Henry Comstock at Cornell University he taught biology at Lake Forest University. In 1908 returned to Cornell as assistant professor of limnology

 
Download 13 MB PDF book
Name

A. P. Chekhov,1,Abraham Lincoln,1,Abraham Cahan,1,Abraham lincoln,1,Acting,2,Actors,2,Actress,1,Adventure,24,Advertising,5,Akhnaton,1,Alan Watts,2,Albert Camus,1,Alchemy,4,Alexander Kielland,1,Alexander the great,3,Alexandre Dumas,7,Algebra,3,Algernon Blackwood,1,Alice's adventures in wonderland,1,American Alligator,1,American History,17,Anarchism,5,Anarchy,4,Anatomy,2,Ancient Egypt,17,Ancient Greece,10,Ancient History,44,Ancient Rome,2,Andrew Lang,7,Andrew Loomis,1,Anger Management,2,Animal magnetism,1,Animals,20,Animism,2,Anna Karenina,1,Anthropology,52,Antichrist,1,Antonio Gramsci,1,Ants,1,Anxie,1,Applied Psychology,18,Arab History,8,Arabian Nights,1,Arabic Language,2,Arabic Literature,3,Archaeology,1,architecture,4,Aristotle,2,Arnold Bennett,1,Art,28,Art and Crafts,57,Arthur B. Reeve,1,Arthur Conan Doyle,5,Arthur Ford Mackenzie,1,Arts,10,Asia,1,Astrology,6,astronomy,1,Atheism,38,Atlantis,3,Atomic,1,Audiobooks,21,August Strindberg,1,Autosuggestion,1,Averroes,1,Ayako Ishigaki,1,Banks,1,Banks and banking,3,Bat,1,Benedetto Croce,1,Beowulf,1,Bertrand Russell,9,Betting,1,Bible,7,Bill Nye,1,Bimetallism,2,Biography,188,Biology,26,Birds,2,birth control,1,Black History,1,Books' Quotes,5,Boxing,1,Brainwashing,1,Bram Stoke,1,Brazil,1,British,3,Broker,1,Buddhism,22,Burl Ives,1,Business,96,Business plan,1,C. Alphonso Smith,2,Canaanite,1,Capitalism,4,Caricatures,3,Carl Jung,5,Carpentry,2,Cartoons,1,Casanova,2,Celestia Root Lang,1,Celsus,1,Celtic,1,Characters and characteristics,7,Charles Darwin,2,Charles Dickens,14,Charles Lewis Hind,1,Charlotte Bronte,1,Chemistry,12,Chess,5,Chicken,2,children,1,Children Books,12,China,7,Chinese Language,3,Chinese Literature,2,Chinese Philosophy,1,Christianity,10,Christmas carol,1,Christopher Columbus,1,Cicero,3,City,1,Civil war,1,Civilization,19,Clairvoyance,1,Classic Books,189,Clay,1,Clea,1,Cleaning,1,Cleopatra,1,Cleveland Moffett,1,Climate,1,Clothes,3,Coffee,1,Collection,54,colors,1,Comedy,1,Comic Book,12,commerce,2,Communication,1,Communism,9,compartive religion,4,Computer and Programming,2,Confucius,2,Conspiracy,3,Controversial,1,Cooking,11,Cooperation,2,Corliss Lamont,1,Cosmology,2,Courage,5,Crausders,1,Crimes,38,Criticism,8,Crowds,1,Crusaders,1,Crusades,1,crystal gazing,1,Cynicism,1,D. H. Lawrence,1,D.H. Lawrence,1,Dante,1,David Copperfield,1,David Graham Phillips,1,David Hume,1,Debate,4,Democracy,1,Demosthenes,1,Denmark,1,Description and travel,22,detective,2,Determinism,4,Devil,5,Diary,4,Dickens,1,Dictatorship,2,Dictionary,58,Diogenes,1,Diogenes of Sinope,1,Discourses,1,DIY,4,Dogs,2,Don Quixote,4,Douglas Ellsworth Lurton,1,Douglas Sladen,1,Dracula,1,Drama,3,Drawing,13,Dreams,2,Dutch Language,1,E. O. James,1,Eastern Philosophy,28,economics,12,Economy,41,Edgar Allan Poe,2,Edgar Burroughs,1,Edgar Wallace,6,Editor's Picks,263,Editor's Post,3,Education.Cato,1,Educational,17,Educational Book,8,Educational film,1,egoism,1,Egypt,21,Egyptology,10,Elbert Hubbard,2,Electricity,1,Electronics,1,Ella Lyman Cabot,1,Elocution,1,Emanuel Lasker,1,embroidery,2,Emerson,2,Emile Zola,2,Emotion,1,Empedocles,1,Encyclopedia,18,Engineering,6,England,1,English Grammar,11,English History,15,English Language,19,English Literature,26,Engraving,3,Enoch,1,Epictetus,4,Epicureanism,11,Epicurus,6,Ernest Hemingway,1,Ernest Vincent Wright,1,Ernst Haeckel,2,Escape,1,Escape stories.,4,Espionage,4,Essays,41,Ethics,47,Etiquette,1,eu,1,Europe,1,European history,9,Evolution,24,Exceptional children,1,Exchange,1,exile,1,F. Scott Fitzgerald,1,Fables,3,Fairy Tales,19,Fallacy,2,Fantasy,36,Fascism,2,Fate,2,Fear,2,Feet,1,Fiction,11,Fighting,4,Films,1,Finland,1,Fishing,1,Fitness,11,Food,5,Food Business,2,France,8,Francis Bacon,3,Francis Carco,1,Frank C. Haddock,1,Frank Harris,2,Frank L. Packard,6,Frankenstein,1,Frederick Douglass,1,Free Will,2,Freemasonry,13,freethought,10,French,8,French History,19,French Revolution,10,French-français,2,Friedrich Nietzsche,5,Funny,1,Fyodor Dostoevsky,1,Fyodor Dostoyevsky,4,G. K. Chesterton,1,Gadsby,1,Gambling,3,Games,10,Games Gambling,1,Gassendi,1,Gemology,1,Genetics,1,Geoffrey Chaucer,1,Geography,2,Geology,5,George de Horne Vaizey,1,George Gissing,1,George Manville Fenn,1,George Santayana,2,German Language,3,German philosophy,1,Germany,2,Germinal,1,Gipsy,1,Giulio Carcano,1,Gnostics,1,God,2,Gods,1,Goodearth,1,Gothic,8,Grammar,2,Grant Allen,5,Gravity,1,Great Britain,1,Great expectations,1,Greece,7,Greek History,18,Greek Language,3,Greek Mythology,5,Greek Philosophy,20,Grocery,1,Gulliver,1,Gulliver's travels,1,Gustave Le Bon,1,Guy de Maupassant,1,Gypsy,1,H. G. Wells,2,H.G. Wells,9,Habit,1,Hallucinations,2,Hand reading,1,Happiness,3,Harvard Classics,2,Health,19,Hebrew,4,Henry Cornelius Agrippa,1,Henry James,2,Henry Rider Haggard,4,Herbs,1,heredity,1,Hermann Lotze,1,Hermetic,5,Hilaire Belloc,1,Hinduism,3,Historical Novel,27,History,405,Hitler,1,Hobbies,3,Holland,1,Hollywood,1,Holy Graal,1,Holy War,1,Home and Garden,3,Homer,3,Homosexuality,1,horology,1,Horror,12,Hotel,2,How-to Books,10,Hstory,1,Humanism,4,Humanity,1,Humor,10,Hungarian Language,2,hypnotism,1,Idioms,1,Imaginary Dialogue,1,Immanuel Kant',1,Immigration,3,Indian,1,Indian History,2,Indian Philosophy,5,Individuality,2,Inferno,1,Ingersoll,2,Insects,3,Interrogations,1,Investment,2,Ireland,5,Irish History,5,Irish Language,1,Isaac Asimov,1,Isaac Newton,2,Islam,20,Italian Language,5,Italian Literature,2,Italy,2,J. M Robertson,2,J. M. Robertson,1,Jack London,8,Jalaluddin Rumi,1,James Allen,2,James Joyce,1,Jane Austen,1,Jane Eyre,1,Japan,3,Japanese,3,Japanese literature,3,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,2,Jerome Davis,2,Jewish,2,Jews,3,Jiddu Krishnamurti,5,Jimmie Dale,1,Jobs,1,John Dewey,1,John Meade Falkner,1,John Milton,1,Jokes,1,Joseph Conrad,4,Joseph McCabe,3,Journalism,7,Judo,1,Jules Verne,2,Julius Caesa,1,Julius Caesar,1,Kabbalah,2,Kama Sutra,1,Karl Marx,1,Karma,1,Kim,1,kkk,1,Knowlege,2,Knut Hamsun,1,Kon Tiki,1,Koran,2,Korean Language,2,Latin Language,4,Law,3,Law of Attraction,3,Learn English,54,Learn Languages,109,Lectures,1,Legends,2,Leo Tolstoy,4,levy,1,Lewis Carroll,1,LiberNull,1,libro italiano,1,Lionheart,1,Literature,45,Liverpool,1,Logic,25,London,1,Lucian,1,Lucretius,1,Ludovico di Varthema,1,Ludwig Wittgenstein,1,Mafia,1,Magazines,8,Maggie,1,Magic,18,Magic Tricks,5,Magick,3,Majorca,1,Malay Language,1,Management,3,Marcus Aurelius,9,Marine animals,1,Mark Twain,5,Marketing,18,Marmaduke William Pickthall,1,Marquis de Sade,1,Martial and Self-Defense,8,Martinsm,1,Marxism,1,Mary Shelley,1,Masochism,1,Masonic,4,Materialism,1,Mathematics,9,Maxim Gorky,1,Maxims,4,Maya,1,Mechanics,2,Medical,4,Medical Dictionary,2,Medicine,5,Medium,1,Mencius,1,mental healing,1,Mentalism,6,Merchant,1,Middle Ages,3,Mike Quin,1,Mikhail Artsybashev,1,Militarism,1,Military,5,Mind,2,Miracles,1,Moby Dick,1,Modern History,13,Modern Philosophy,53,Money,27,Money Business,2,Mongol,1,Mormonism,2,Music,3,Mussolini,1,Mustafa Kemal,1,Mystery,8,Mysticism,2,Mythology,23,Mythology and Folklore,72,MythologyHistory,1,Naples,1,Napoleon,6,Native American,1,Natural History,5,Natural Philosophy,2,Natural Selection,1,Nature,11,Nazism,1,Netherlands,3,New Thought Movement,12,New York,2,newspapers,4,Niccolo Machiavelli,1,Nietzsche,4,Nikolay Chernyshevsky,1,Nirvana,2,Non-Fiction,1,Norway,3,Norwegian Language,1,Nostradamus,1,Note-taking,1,Novels,448,Nuclear energy,1,O. CHenry,1,Occultism,112,Old Testament,1,Omar Khayyam,1,Ontology,7,Opinions,1,Orations,1,Orison Swett Marden,6,Ornaments,3,Outlaws,1,Pain,1,painting,3,Palm Reading,1,Palmistry,2,pantheism,1,Paris,2,Paternalism,1,Pearls Buck,1,People Reading,3,Perception,2,Perfumery,1,Persia,1,Persian Language,1,Personal Memoirs,6,Peru,1,Pessimism,6,Philip Gilbert Hamerton,1,Philosophy,318,phonetic,2,phonetics,2,Photography,2,Physics,17,Physiognomy,1,Physiology,2,pigeon,1,pinned,2,Pirates,1,Places,4,Plato,5,Plays,18,Podiatry,1,Poetry,24,Poker,4,Political,80,Political economy,6,politics,7,Portability,1,Portuguese Language,1,Pottery,1,Poultry,6,Poverty,4,Pragmatism,3,prehistoric people,1,Prison,2,Psychiatry,1,Psychoanalysis,10,Psychology,109,psychotherapy,1,Ptolemaic,1,Public Speaking,4,Punctuation,1,Quantum Mechanics,1,Quantum Physics,1,Queen Moo,1,Quest,1,Quotations,32,Quran,2,R.M. Ballantyne,1,Races,6,Radio,1,Radium,1,Rat,1,Rationalism,29,Reading,15,Real estate,1,Reality,2,Recipes,2,Reference,4,Reincarnation,1,Relativity,2,Relaxaion,1,Religions,177,Reptiles,1,Reviews,2,Revolution,1,Rhetoric,1,Richard Hughes,1,Richard Jefferies,1,Rider Haggard,2,Rip Van Winkle,1,Robert Hichens,4,Robert Matteson Johnston,1,Robert Owen,1,Robin Hood,1,Roman Empire,14,Roman history,8,Romance,27,Romania,1,Rome,7,Rudolf Christoph Eucken,1,Rudyard Kipling,2,Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich,1,Russia,2,Russian,1,Russian History,2,Russian Language,4,Russian revolution,4,Sacred Texts,8,Sadism,2,Saladin,2,salesman,2,salesmanship,9,Samurai,1,San Francisco,1,Satanism,1,Satire,3,Sayings,13,Scholasticism,1,Schopenhauer,5,Science,78,Science Fiction,37,Scotland,2,Sculpture,5,Secret Society,3,Secret Teachings,12,Self Hypnotism,1,Self-culture,1,Self-Defense,6,Self-Help,189,Selling,24,Semitic,1,Seneca,6,Sewing,1,Sex Education,3,Sexuality,21,Shakespeare,10,Shamanism,3,Shaw Desmond,1,Sherlock Holmes,4,Shinto,1,Short Stories,31,shorthand,1,Sicilian,1,Sicily,1,Sigmund Freud,4,Silk,1,Sinai,1,Skepticism,1,slang,2,Slang American,1,Slavery,3,Small Business,14,Snbad,1,Social Class,3,social contract,1,Social Justice,4,Social Life,9,Social problems,4,Social psychology,5,Social Study,1,Socialism,14,Sociology,25,Socrates,3,South America,1,Spain,3,Spanish Language,9,Spartan,1,Speech,1,Spinoza,2,Sport,3,Statics,1,Statistics,1,Stephen Crane,1,Stock Market,2,Stoicism,32,Stones,1,Strength,1,Students,4,Study Skill,5,Success,46,Suffering,1,Sufism,1,Suicide,1,Supernatural,1,Superstition,4,Survival,4,Swedish Language,1,Swindler,1,swindles,1,Symbolism,2,synonyms and antonyms,2,Tamil,1,Tarot,1,Tea,1,Teach yourself,228,Technical books,5,Thai Language,4,Thailand,2,The adventures of Huckleberry,1,The Lord of the Rings,1,The West,1,Theology,2,Theory of Knowledge,2,Theosophy,3,Theosophy. Religions,1,Thriller,7,Time Management,1,Timothy Leary,3,Timothy Leary,3,Titanic,2,Tom Sawyer,1,Tortoises,1,Totemism,1,Tourism,2,Toys,1,Trade,2,Tramp,5,Travel,71,Troy,1,Tunis,1,Turkey,2,Turtles,1,UFO,1,UK,3,Ulysses,1,Upton Sinclair,5,USA,5,Utilitarianism,1,Utopia,19,Victor Hugo,2,Viking,2,Voltaire,5,Voynich Manuscript,1,W. Somerset Maugham,3,Wall Street,1,Wang Yangming,1,War,28,Watches,1,Will Power,2,William Atkinson,1,William Blake,1,William Faulkner,1,William Golding,1,William Henry Davies,1,William J. Robinson,1,William James,2,William John Locke,1,William Thackeray,1,William Walker Atkinson,5,Wine,3,Wisdom,3,Woman,1,Women,7,Woodwork,1,Workers,3,World War,8,Worry,3,Wright Richard,1,Writer,12,Writing,31,Yoga,4,Zarathustra,1,Zen,6,Zeus,1,Zoology,14,
ltr
item
Study PDF ebooks for Students and General Readers : General biology; (1913) PDF book by James George Needham
General biology; (1913) PDF book by James George Needham
General biology:offers a series of practical studies of biological phenomena for the guidance of the general student. It is not a formal text,
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dsrO75bP52M/YNBEhdK608I/AAAAAAAAjrw/oN36FUCVxcAONyTVhxKiFdpimriZlbvbgCLcBGAsYHQ/w320-h196/general%2Bbiology.png
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dsrO75bP52M/YNBEhdK608I/AAAAAAAAjrw/oN36FUCVxcAONyTVhxKiFdpimriZlbvbgCLcBGAsYHQ/s72-w320-c-h196/general%2Bbiology.png
Study PDF ebooks for Students and General Readers
https://www.studyebooks.com/2021/06/General-biology-Needham.html
https://www.studyebooks.com/
https://www.studyebooks.com/
https://www.studyebooks.com/2021/06/General-biology-Needham.html
true
1316358261233182524
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share. STEP 2: Click the link you shared to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy