Women of all nations, (1908) PDF by Thomas Athol Joyce (with illustrations)

Women of all nations, a record of their characteristics, habits, manners, customs and influence.

Excerpt:
Hupa
Hupa


At the burial of a Hupa, the husband widow may release herself from her marriage vow by standing between her dead husband's legs, otherwise, she is bound as a widow for life. The Hupa widow has her hair cut short and wears it so as long as she lives, or until she marries again. Nearer relatives cut the hair as a sign of mourning, and all members of the household wear necklaces of braided grass to prevent them from dreaming of the dead. The second view of this Babel of Indian tongues is given by Dr Roland B. Dixon in his studies on the Maidu, occupying the area drained by the Sacramento River. The Maidu skin-dressers are, as a rule, women. They remove the hair with scrapers of bone or stone; they soak the skins and rub them with dried deer wringing and rubbing until dry and soft. They seldom
smoke them. 
Kachins
Kachins 



The Kachins of the north, like the Chins, show much diversity of type. The face is usually Mongolian and unattractive, but the nose is sometimes aquiline, and the features regular. They are primitive in their habits but are on the whole a finer race than the Chins. Among the ruling classes, the business aspect of the marriage ceremony is concealed by the bridegroom going through a form of abduction; with the common people, free intercourse is allowed before marriage. The girl selects her husband after a stay, in turn, with any likely young men, at a hut on the outskirts of the village, has enabled her to judge between their attractions. If there is a child the man has to marry or pay a fine. Marriage between persons of the same surname is forbidden; so is marriage with a father's sister's daughter, though with a mother's brother's daughter it is expected. Though polygamy is not usual, a man is bound to marry the widow of his elder brother, whether he has a wife or not, unless he can get a younger brother to relieve him of the duty
AN OSTIAK WOMAN. SIBERIA.
AN OSTIAK WOMAN. SIBERIA.



To the peasants of Great Russia, marriage is a Sanctity of Marriage. death alone can dissolve, and divorce with the help of the lawcourts is practically unknown to them. If a husband and wife cannot get on together they simply agree between themselves to live apart, the husband taking the boys and the wife the girls in cases where there are children. The wife's dowry remains her own as long as she lives, and after her death, it goes to the nearest female descendant. Money earned by the wife is her own, and she is free to do what she likes with it. 'When a widow is left without children she usually returns to her own people; she has the right to marry again 
;
Italian Girls
Italian girls



The number who avail themselves of these advantages is as yet, however, but small, and in the Universities the faculties most frequented are those of literature, natural science, and medicine. The women graduates comprise several lady doctors in good practice and a certain number of professors and lecturers on literature and science. Although no woman artist of any great merit has as yet emerged from the schools now existing in all the great art centres of Italy, in the domain of literature may be mentioned such names as Grazia Deledda, who in her novels has graphically depicted the strange and still half-savage population of Sardinia; and. Matilde Serao, whose stories present the seamy side of Neapolitan life. This enterprising woman, herself of humble origin, is the founder and editress of a successful daily paper, II Mattino {The Morning), which is devoted to the interests of the labouring classes. As actresses, Italian women have also attained a high level of excellence, while in the domain of opera, it need hardly be said, they stand in the foremost rank. The intellectual attainments of middle-class women generally


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