Early European history- PDF by Hutton Webster

Early European history (with illustrations)

Early European history



this book aims to furnish a concise and connected account of human progress during ancient, medieval, and early modern times. It should meet the requirements of those high schools and preparatory schools where ancient history, as a separate discipline, is being supplanted by a more extended course introductory to the study of recent times and contemporary problems. 

Such a course was first outlined by the Regents of the University of the State of New York in their Syllabus for Secondary Schools, issued in 1910. Since the appearance of the Regents' Syllabus the Committee of Five of the American Historical Association has made its Report (1911), suggesting a rearrangement of the curriculum which would permit a year's work in English and Continental history. StiU more recently the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, in its Report (1916) to the National Education Association has definitely recommended the division of European history into two parts, of which the first should include ancient and Oriental civilization, English and Continental history to approximately the end of the seventeenth century, and the period of American exploration. 


The first twelve chapters of the present work are based upon the author's Ancient History, published four years ago. In spite of many omissions, it has been possible to follow without essential modification the plan of the earlier volume. A number of new maps and illustrations have been added to these chapters.

 The selection of collateral reading, always a difficult problem in secondary school, is doubly difficult when so much ground must be covered in a single course. The author ventures, therefore, to call attention to his Readings in Ancient History. Its purpose, in the words of the preface, is "to provide immature pupils with a variety of extended, unified, and interesting extracts on matters which a textbook treats with necessary, though none the less deplorable, condensation." A companion volume, entitled Readings in Medieval IV Preface and Modern History, will be published shortly. References to both books are inserted in footnotes. At the end of what has been a long and engrossing task, it becomes a pleasant duty to acknowledge the help which has been received from teachers in school and college. Various chapters, either in a manuscript or in the proofs, have been read by Professor James M. Leake of Bryn Mawr College; Professor J. C. Hildt of Smith College; Very Rev. Patrick J. Healy, Professor of Church History in the Catholic University of America; Professor E. F. Humphrey of Trinity College; Dr James Sullivan, Director of the Division of Archives and Plistory, State Dept. of Education of New York; Constantine E. McGuire, Assistant Secretary-General, International High Commission, Washington; Miss Margaret E. McGill, of the Newton (Mass.) High School; and Miss Mabel Chesley, of the Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn. The author would also express appreciation of the labours of the cartographers, artists, and printers, to whose accuracy and skill every page of the book bears witness.

Some contents of the book

I. The Ages before History.
1. The Study of History 1
2. Prehistoric Peoples 3
3. Domestication of Animals and Plants 6
4. Writing and the Alphabet 8
5. Primitive Science and Art 11
6. Historic Peoples 15
11. The Lands and Peoples of the East to about 500 b.c.
7. Physical Asia 19
8. Babylonia and Egypt 22
9. The Babylonians and the Egyptians ...... 24
10. The Phoenicians and the Hebrews ....... 29
11. The Assyrians 34
12. The World Empire of Persia 37
III. Oriental Civilization.
13. Social Classes 42
14. Economic Conditions 44
15. Commerce and Trade Routes 47
16. Law and Morality 50
17. Religion 52
18. Literature and Art 56
19. Science and Education 60
IV. The Lands of the West and the Rise of Greece to about 500 B.C.
20. Physical Europe 65
21. Greece and the ^Egean '....„ . 66
22. The ^gean Age (to about 1100 B.C.) 68
23. The Homeric Age (about 1100-750 B.C.) .... 72
24. Early Greek Religion 75
25. Religious Institutions: Oracles and Games . . „ 78
26. The Greek City-State 81
27. The Growth of Sparta (to 500 b.c.) 83
28. The Growth of Athens (to 500 B.C.) 85
29. Colonial Expansion of Greece (about 750-500 B.C.) 87
30. Bonds of Union among the Greeks. 90
V. Thk Great Age of the Greek Republics to 362 b.c.
31. The Perils of Hellas 93
32. Expeditions of Darius against Greece 95
33. Xerxes and the Great Persian War 97
34. Athens under Themistocles, Aristides, and Cimon. 100
35. Athens under Pericles 103
36. The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 b.c 108
37. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies, 404-362
38. Decline of the City-State 113
VI. Mingling of East and West after 359 b.c.
39. Philip and the Rise of Macedonia 115
40. Demosthenes and the End of Greek Freedom . . 117
41. Alexander the Great 119
42. Conquest of Persia and the Far East, 334-323 B.C. 122
43. The Work of Alexander 125
44. Hellenistic Kingdoms and Cities 127
45. The Hellenistic Age 130
46. The Graco-Oriental World 133
VII. The Rise of Rome to 264 b.c. '
47. Italy and Sicily 136
48. The Peoples of Italy 137
49. The Romans .' 140
50. Early Roman Society 143
51. Roman Religion 145
52. The Roman City-State 149
53. Expansion of Rome over Italy, 509 (?)-264 B.C. . 153
54. Italy under Roman Rule. 155
55. The Roman Army 158
VIII. The Great Age of the Roman Republic, 264-31 b.c.
56. The Rivals: Rome and Carthage, 264-218 b.c. . 162
57. Hannibal and the Great Punic War, 218-201 B.C. 164
58. Roman Supremacy in the West and in the East,
201-133 B.c 168
59. The Mediterranean World under Roman Rule . . 171 

the book details :
  • Author: Hutton Webster
  • Publication date: 1920
  • Company: Boston, New York

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