Silent reading, with special reference to methods for developing speed (1922) by John A O'Brien.
Excerpt from the introduction:
The processes and purposes involved in silent reading have lately been subjected to searching analysis. The former is revealed as both physiological and psychological, the latter as both complex and various. Each has its lessons for the guidance of the teacher, and each exalts the importance of reading as a school subject.
Reading processes on their psychological side is essentially associative — associative of impressions with meanings and of meanings with each other. In the latter sense, they are frequently identified with the study. Indeed, silent reading of the reflective type differs in no practical sense from the study. The fact that in the study we repeat and recapitulate adds but little of a qualitative nature to the reading act. Processes on the physiological side consist of a large part of eye movements. The number, length, groupings, and progressive or recessive character of these movements are at once symptoms and conditions of reading efficiency.
Moreover, they take place according to patterns that are peculiar to each individual, being the product of original nature and of practice. So far as they depend on practice, they are capable of improvement; and this improvement is a matter of habit formation. Since each eye movement is definitely terminated by a pause or point at which the eye rests and during which seeing takes place, the analysis of eye movement becomes in fact the analysis of pauses. Better habits of eye movement, therefore, consist in better habits of eye pausing.
I. INTRODUCTION: RESUME OP PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS . 1
II. THE PROBLEM
III. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE OF SILENT READING
IV. TYPE I. TRAINING IN RAPID SILENT READING
V. TYPE II. TRAINING TO DECREASE VOCALIZATION.
VI. TYPE III. TRAINING IN PERCEPTION
VII. STATEMENT OF PROCEDURE
VIII. STATEMENT OF RESULTS
IX. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS . .
X. PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF EYE-MOVEMENTS DURING
XI. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 270
XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 275
XIII. APPENDIX. 281
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