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Myth, ritual and religion PDF book by Andrew Lang ( Volume 1 and 2 ) (1887)

Myth, ritual and religion PDF book by Andrew Lang ( Volume 1 and 2 ) (1887)

Myth, ritual and religion

Updated . Volume 1 Added


Some content of volume one

Systems op Mythology Definitions of religion — Contradictory evidence — "Belief in spirit- ual beings" — Objection to Mr. Tylor's definition— Definition as regards this argument — Problem: the contradiction between religion and myth — Two human moods — Examples — Case of Greece — Ancient mythologists — Criticism by Eusebius — Modem mythological systems — Mr. Max Miiller— Mannhardt.

New System Proposed --29 Chapter I. recapitulated — Proposal of a new method : Science of comparative or historical study of man — Anticipated in part bj' Eu.sebius, Fontenelle, De Brosses, Spencer (of C.C«C., Cam- bridge), and Mannhardt — Science of Tylor — Object of inquiry : to find condition of human intellect in which marvels of myth are parts of practical everyday belief — This is the savage state — Savages described — The wild element of myth a survival from the savage state — Advantages of this method— Partly 'accounts for wide diffusion as well as origin of myths — Connected with general theory of evolution — Puzzling example of myth of the water-swallower — Professor Tiele's criticism of the method — Objections to method, and answer to these — See Appendix B

The Mental Condition op Savages — Confusion with Nature — Totemism 48 The mental condition of savages the basis of the irrational element in myth — Characteristics of that condition : (1) Confusion of all things in an equality of presumed animation and intelligence ; «_ (2) Belief in sorcery ; (3) Spiritualism ; (4) Curiosity ; (5) Easy credulity and mental indolence — The curiosity is satisfied, thanks to the credulity, by myths in answer to all inquiries — Evidence for this — Mr. Tylor's opinion — Mr. Im Thurn— Jesuit mission- aries' Relations — Examples of confusion between men, plants, beasts and other natural objects — Reports of travellers — Evi- dence from institution of totemism — Definition of totemism — 'otemism in Australia, Africa, America, the Oceanic Islands, ndia, North Asia— Conclusions : Totemism being found so widely distributed, is a proof of the existence of that savage mental con- dition in which no line is drawn between men and the other things in the world. This confusion is one of the characteristics of myth in all races,

Some contents of the Volume 2


Gods of Australia — Chiefly birds — Yet with moral interests — Bush- men gods — Cagn, the grasshopper — Hottentot gods — " Wounded knee," a dead sorcerer — Melanesian gods — Qat and the spider — Aht and Maori beast-gods and men-gods — Samoan form of totem- gods — One god incarnate in many animal shapes — One for each clan — They punish the eating of totems.


Novelty of the "New World " — Different stages of culture represented there — Question of American Monotheism — Authorities and evidence cited — Myths examined : Eskimo, Ahts, Thlinkeets, Iroquois, the Great Hare — Dr. Brinton's theory of the hare — Zuni myths — Transition to Mexican mythology.


European eye-witnesses of Mexican ritual — Diaz, his account of temples and gods— Sahagun, his method — Theories of the god Huitzilopochtli—Totemistic and other elements in his image and legend — Illustrations from Latin religion — " God-eating"— The Calendar — Other gods — Their feasts and cruel ritual — Their com- posite character— Parallels from ancient classical peoples — Moral aspects of Aztec gods.

Antiquity of Egypt— Guesses at origin of the people— Chronological view of the religion — Permanence and changes — Local and syn- cretic worship — Elements of pure belief and of totemism — Autho- rities for facts — Monuments and Greek reports — Contending theories of modern authors — Study of the gods, their beasts, their alliances, and mutations — Evidence of ritual — A study of the Osiris myth and of the development of Osiris— Savage and theological elements in the myth — Moral aspects of the religion — Conclusion,


Difficulties of the study — Development of clan-gods — Depai-tmental gods — Divine patronage of morality — Immorality mythically at- tributed to gods — Indra — His love of Soma — Scandal about Indra — Attempts to explain Indra as an elemental god — Vanina — Ushas — The Asvins — Their legend and theories about it — Tvashtri — The Maruts — Conclusions arrived at.


Gods in myth, and God in religion — The society of the gods like that of men in Homer — Borrowed elements in Greek belief — Zeus — His nama — Development of his legend — His bestial shapes explained — Zeus in religion — Apollo — Artemis — Dionysus Athene — Aphrodite — Hermes — Demeter — Their names, natures, rituals, and legends — Conclusions.


A new clasa of myths — Not explanatory — Popular tales — Heroic and romantic myths — (i.) Savage tales — (2,) European Contes — (3.) Heroic myths— Their origin — Diffusion — History of their study — Grimm's theory — Aryan theory — Benfey's theory — Ancient Egyptian stories examined — Wanderung's theories — Conclusion.

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This is Volume 2
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