Early civilization; an introduction to anthropology (1920) PDF book by Alexander Goldenweiser

Early civilization; an introduction to anthropology Free PDF book by Alexander Goldenweiser With Illustrations


Excerpt from the author's introduction

Those whose common preoccupation is with ideas are wont to cherish the illusion of originality. But if the history of mental content were disclosed we should find that most of what we know and think is derived from others. My more clearly discernible obligations are due to many. It is hard to express the extent of my indebtedness to Professor Franz Boas, of Columbia, whose glowing enthusiasm and colossal knowledge have for many years served as guidance and inspiration.


Of the many intellectual companions of my academic years, I want to single out four whose ideas and criticisms have aided in the formation and shaping of my own thoughts: Professors Robert H. Lowie and A. L. Kroeber, of Berkeley, Doctor Edward Sapir, of the Victoria Museum, Ottawa, and Paul Radin, now of Oxford, England. My gratitude is due to my friend and colleague, James Harvey Robinson and to Mrs. Etta Stuart Sohier, of Los Angeles, for reading and criticizing the first version of this book. Their suggestions proved so valuable that the original plan of revising the first draft was abandoned and a new book written.

I want to thank my old chum and companion, Samuel Joseph, for reading the page proof. I also want to express my obligation to my classes in anthropology at Columbia and The New School for Social Research, for without the experience gained in the preparation and delivery of these lectures, the book could not have been written. My final obligation is due to my secretary, Miss Anne V. Cooper, who has fulfilled the enormous task of typing and retyping the manuscript, has read the proofs and made innumerable suggestions as to the form and content of the pages that follow.

Content of the book:

CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE vii INTRODUCTION MAN AND CIVILIZATION The Unity of Man 3 The Nature of Civilization 15 The Evolutionary Theory: An Exposition and a Criticism 20
PART I EARLY CIVILIZATIONS ILLUSTRATED INTRODUCTION

31 Chapter I. The Eskimo: A Case of Environmental Adjustment 34 Chapter II. The Tlingit and Haida of Northwest America 53 Chapter III. The Iroquois Matriarchate 70 Chapter IV. Uganda, An African State 83 Chapter V. Central Australia, A Magic Ridden Community 100 Chapter VI. Reflections on Part I 115
PART II INDUSTRY AND ART, RELIGION AND SOCIETY OF EARLY MAN INTRODUCTION 131

Chapter VII. Economic Conditions and Industry 132 The Economic Adjustment 132 Applied Knowledge 138 KwakiutI Industry 138 Chapter VIII. Economic Conditions and Industry (Continued) 15° Applied Knowledge (Continued) 15° Hopi Pigments 15° Tewa Ethnobotany 152 Invention i57 Chapter IX. Art 165 Chapter X. Religion and Magic 184 The Basic Factors of Religion 184 The Guardian Spirit in American Indian Religion 184 Modern Magic 193 Mana or Impersonal Supernatural Power 197 Chapter XI. Religion and Magic (Continued) 202 Anthropomorphism and the Higher Gods 202 Chukchee Supernaturalism 202 Bella Coola Gods 207 The All-Father 211 The Individual in Religion 214 Medicine-men Among the Chukchee and Others 214 The Ghost-Dance Religions of the North American Indians 224 Supernaturalism as a World View 231 Chapter XII. Society 235 The Foundations of Society 225 The Disabilities of Women 259 Chapter XIII. Society (Continued) 265 The Foundations of Society (Continued) 265 Political Organization 270 The Geographical Distribution of Social Forms 279 Totem
282 Chapter XIV. Reflections on Part II 292 Culture and Environment 292 Diffusion versus Independent Development in Early Civilization 301 Contents xi

PART III THE IDEAS OF EARLY MAN  327 

Chapter XV. Theories of Early Mentality 330 Spencer's Theories 330 Frazer's Theories 337 Wundt's Theories 348 Chapter XVI. Theories of Earj.y Mentality (Continued) 360 Durkheim's Theories 360 Levy-Bruhl's Theories 380 Freud's Theories 389 Chapter XVII. Early Life and Thought 399 Bibliographic Guide 416 Index 425


AuthorAlexander Goldenweiser
: Publication Date:1920

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