Science in History. Volume One by J.D. Bernal PDF book

Science in History. Volume One by J.D. Bernal Free PDF book

Science in History. pdf
Science in History

Introduction:

one of the troubles of our times is that science produces so few innovators and soaring creative minds, like J. D. Bernal’s, which can at the same time relate their science, and indeed all science, to man’s social and political life and history.

The alienation of science in the modern world where average men and women have come to feel that science is a kind of thing apart, a never-never land of infinite complication which somehow controls one’s destiny yet is uncontrollable — this alienation is partial, at least, the result of scientists having become so chained by the tyranny of their specialties and the conformity of their social outlooks that they cannot relate the grand sweep of man’s mastery of nature to man’s social needs. The need for a book like Science In History, which tells the history of science from the viewpoint of a thinker with a scientific view of history itself has been enormous, and never greater than in this explosive age of vast achievement unmatched in the history of man.

In 1948 I was asked to deliver the Charles Beard Lectures at Ruskin College, Oxford. The subject I chose was “ Science in Social History.” It was one that had interested me for many years and there seemed no difficulty in presenting it to an intelligent and unspecialized audience.


When I came to give the lectures, and still more when I undertook to present them in book form, I began to realize that I had opened a subject that required far more study and hard thinking than I had given it up till then. It was, however, one far too fascinating to put down, and I decided to persevere in it. The first result of that intention is this book, one which I hoped to prepare in three weeks but which has already taken me twice that number of years. It is only now that I am beginning to understand what are the problems of the place of science in history. Scientists in the past were able to neglect all but their immediate predecessors’ work and even to reject the traditions of the past as more likely to block than assist progress. Now, however, the troubles of the times, together with the inescapable connection between them and the advance of science, have focused attention on the historical aspect of science.


To find how to overcome the difficulties that face us and to release the new forces of science for welfare rather than destruction, it is necessary to examine anew how the present situation came about. In the last thirty years, largely owing to the impact of Marxist thought, the idea has grown that not only the means used by natural scientists in their researches but also the very guiding ideas of their theoretical approach are conditioned by the events and pressures of society. This idea has been violently opposed and as energetically supported, but in the controversy, the earlier view of the direct impact of science on society has become overshadowed. It was my purpose to emphasize once more to what extent the advance of natural science has helped to determine that of society itself; not only in the economic changes brought about by the application of scientific discoveries, but also by the effect on the general frame of thought of the impact of new scientific theories.



Author:
J.D. Bernal Publication Date:1954
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A. P. Chekhov,1,Abraham Cahan,2,Abraham lincoln,1,Acting,2,Actors,2,Actress,1,Adam Smith,1,Adventure,22,Advertising,4,Akhnaton,1,Alan Watts,2,Albert Camus,1,Alchemy,4,Alexander,1,Alexander Kielland,1,Alexander the great,2,Alexandre Dumas,4,Algebra,1,Alice,1,Alice's adventures in wonderland,1,American Alligator,1,American History,5,Anarchism,4,Anarchy,4,Anatomy,1,Ancient,2,Ancient Egypt,15,Ancient Greece,4,Ancient Rome,1,Andrew Lang,2,Andrew Loomis,1,Anger Management,2,Animal magnetism,1,Animals,18,Animism,2,Anna Karenina,1,Anthropology,7,Antichrist,1,Antonio Gramsci,1,Ants,1,Anxie,1,Applied Psychology,14,Arabian Nights,1,Arabic Language,1,Arabic Literature,2,Aramaic Language,1,Aristotle,2,Arnold Bennett,2,Arrian,1,Art,23,Art and Crafts,21,Arthur B. 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M Robertson,2,Jack London,6,Jalaluddin Rumi,1,James Allen,2,James Fenimore Cooper,1,James Joyce,1,Jane Austen,2,Japan,4,Japanese,3,Japanese literature,2,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,2,Jerome Davis,2,Jewish,4,Jiddu Krishnamurti,2,John Dewey,1,John Howard Moore,1,John Meade Falkner,1,John Steinbeck,1,Joseph Conrad,2,Joseph McCabe,5,Journalism,3,Judo,1,Jules Verne,1,Julius Caesa,1,Julius Caesar,1,Kabbalah,1,Karl Marx,1,Karma,1,Kim,1,King Arthur,1,kkk,1,Knowlege,1,Kon Tiki,1,Koran,3,Korean Language,2,Kundalini,1,Latin Language,2,Law,1,Law of Attraction,3,Le miserable,1,Learn English,37,Learn Language,7,Learn Languages,70,Lenin,1,Leo Tolstoy,2,Lewis Carroll,2,LiberNull,1,Lionheart,1,Literature,33,Liverpool,1,Logic,14,Lucian,1,Lucifer,1,Lucretius,1,Ludovico di Varthema,1,Ludwig Feuerbach,1,Ludwig Wittgenstein,1,Mafia,1,Maggie,1,Magic,24,Magic Tricks,4,Magick,3,Majorca,1,Malay Language,1,Management,2,Manly Hall,1,Marco Polo,1,Marcus Aurelius,7,Margaret Mitchell,1,Mark Twain,3,Marketing,14,Marmaduke William Pickthall,1,Marquis de Sade,2,Martial and Self-Defense,9,Martial Art,2,Martinsm,1,Marxism,1,Mary Shelley,1,Masochism,1,Masonic,5,Mathematics,3,Maxims,4,Maya,1,Mechanics,2,Medical,3,Medical Dictionary,2,Medicine,5,Medium,1,mental healing,1,Mental Illness,1,Mentalism,6,Merchant,1,Middle Ages,2,Mike Quin,1,Mikhail Artsybashev,1,Militarism,1,Military,7,Mind,2,Miracles,1,Miyamoto Musashi,1,Moby Dick,1,Modern Philosophy,21,Mohammedanism,1,Mohicans,1,Money,16,Money Business,2,Mongol,1,Moses,1,Music,1,Mustafa Kemal,1,Mystery,5,Mysticism,1,Mythology,24,Mythology and Folklore,27,Nana,1,Naples,1,Napoleon,3,Napoleon Hill,1,Nasser,1,Nationalism,1,Native American,1,Natural History,3,Natural Philosophy,1,Natural Selection,1,Nature,10,Nazi,1,Nazism,2,Nero,1,Netherlands,3,New Testament,1,New Thought Movement,8,New York,2,newspapers,1,Niccolo Machiavelli,3,Nietzsche,6,Nirvana,2,Noivels,1,Non-English Books,1,Non-Fiction,2,Norway,1,Norwegian Language,1,Nostradamus,1,Novels,254,Nuclear energy,1,Occultism,53,Old Testament,1,Oliver Twist,1,Omar Khayyam,1,Orison Swett Marden,5,Ornaments,1,Osamu Dazai,1,Oscar Wilde,1,Outlaws,1,Pagan Bible,1,Pain,1,Palm Reading,1,Palmistry,2,Paris,3,Paternalism,1,Patriotism,1,Pearls Buck,1,People Reading,2,Perception,3,Perfumery,1,Persia,1,Persian Language,1,personal magnetism,1,Peru,1,Philip Gilbert Hamerton,2,Philosophy,228,phonetic,2,Photography,3,Physics,11,pigeon,1,pinned,7,Pirates,2,Places,1,Plato,1,Plays,6,Podiatry,1,Poetry,7,Poker,5,Political,50,Political economy,2,politics,6,Portability,1,Portuguese Language,1,Pottery,1,Poultry,3,Poverty,5,Practicality,2,Pragmatism,1,Prison,2,Projection,1,Propaganda,1,Psychiatry,1,Psychoanalysis,5,Psychology,84,psychotherapy,2,Ptolemaic,1,PTSD,1,Public Speaking,2,Punctuation,1,Pythagoras,1,Quantum Mechanics,1,Queen Moo,1,Quest,1,Quotations,13,Quran,3,R.M. 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